Serialize & Deserialize A Binary Tree

We look at the different ways that we can serialize and deserialize a binary tree.

Table of Contents
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Code Sample

Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree - LeetCode:
This code passes all Leetcode test cases as of April 26 2019
Runtime: 12 ms, faster than 62.25% of Java online submissions for Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree.
Memory Usage: 39.4 MB, less than 71.37% of Java online submissions for Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree.
The video to explain this code is here:
public class Codec {
private static final String NULL_SYMBOL = "X";
private static final String DELIMITER = ",";
// Encodes a tree into a single string.
public String serialize(TreeNode root) {
// If we have a null symbol...we encode a null symbol
if (root == null) {
The key to tree problems is TO HAND OFF RESPONSIBILITY. Here
we are saying...
"hey, I know what root's value is...ummmm...hey serialize()...
can you encode my left and right subtrees?...Get back to me
because ONLY THEN will I append myself"
String leftSerialized = serialize(root.left);
String rightSerialized = serialize(root.right);
// Here we append the node we hold ('root') to the other serializations
return root.val + DELIMITER + leftSerialized + rightSerialized;
Here we take the string and simply split it on the delimiter. We then
have a list of values we can materialize into nodes
public TreeNode deserialize(String data) {
Queue<String> nodesLeftToMaterialize = new LinkedList<>();
return deserializeHelper(nodesLeftToMaterialize);
We use a queue here so we don't have to keep overarching state (since
the question description bars us from doing so)
At any point in time when this function is called we will know the next
node to materialize
We materialize a node, set its left and right subtrees respectively, and
then return the node itself
public TreeNode deserializeHelper(Queue<String> nodesLeftToMaterialize) {
String valueForNode = nodesLeftToMaterialize.poll();
if (valueForNode.equals(NULL_SYMBOL)) {
return null;
TreeNode newNode = new TreeNode(Integer.valueOf(valueForNode));
newNode.left = deserializeHelper(nodesLeftToMaterialize);
newNode.right = deserializeHelper(nodesLeftToMaterialize);
I know what you are thinking..."how does the call to 'right' know
where to pick up where the 'left' call left off?
Well, the queue ensures that whatever is at the front is the next
node to process, we don't need to carry state between calls because
the queue enforces that ordering itself
return newNode;